By Johnathan Hettinger, Midwest Center for Investigative Reporting

This story is supported with a grant from the Fund for Investigative Journalism.

Get poisoned or get on board.

That’s the selection soybean farmers corresponding to Will Glazik face. The previous few summers, farmers close to Glazik’s central Illinois farm have sprayed a lot of the weed killer dicamba on the similar time that it has polluted the air for hours and typically days.

As Glazik places it, there are two forms of soybeans: Monsanto’s, that are genetically engineered to face up to dicamba, and everybody else’s.

Glazik’s soybeans have been the broken ones. His soybean leaves will curl up; then the crops will grow to be smaller and weaker. He’s misplaced as a lot as 40 bushels an acre in some fields, an enormous loss when natural soybeans are $20 a bushel. He has to maintain his breath yearly to see if the harm will trigger him to lose his natural certification.

His neighbors who spray dicamba are pissed off with him, he stated. There’s a simple resolution to keep away from harm, they inform him: Buy Monsanto’s seeds.

Monsanto’s Dicamba-Tolerant Crop Rollout

close up of oak tree branches
An oak tree displays signs of injury from dicamba documented by the Illinois Department of Natural Resources. Midwest Center for Investigative Reporting.

This actuality is what Monsanto was counting on when it launched dicamba-tolerant crops, an investigation by the Midwest Center for Investigative Reporting discovered.

Monsanto’s new system was supposed to be the way forward for farming, offering farmers with a collection of seeds and chemical compounds that would fight an increasing number of weeds that have been turning into tougher to kill.

Instead, the system’s rollout has led to tens of millions of acres of crop harm throughout the Midwest and South; widespread tree loss of life in lots of rural communities, state parks, and nature preserves; and an unprecedented stage of strife within the farming world.

Executives from Monsanto and BASF, a German chemical firm that labored with Monsanto to launch the system, knew their dicamba weed killers would trigger large-scale harm to fields throughout the United States however determined to push them on unsuspecting farmers anyway, in a bid to nook the soybean and cotton markets.

Monsanto and BASF have denied for years that dicamba is answerable for harm, blaming farmers making unlawful functions, climate occasions, and illness. The firms insist that when utilized in accordance to the label, dicamba stays on goal and is an efficient device for farmers.

The Monsanto-Dicamba Investigation

Over the previous yr, the Midwest Center reviewed 1000’s of pages of presidency and inner firm paperwork launched by lawsuits, sat within the courtroom for weeks of deliberation, interviewed farmers affected by dicamba, and weed scientists coping with the difficulty up shut. This story gives probably the most complete image of what Monsanto and BASF knew about dicamba’s propensity to hurt farmers’ livelihoods and the surroundings earlier than releasing the weed killer.

The investigation discovered:

Ignoring Warnings

Monsanto and BASF launched their merchandise realizing that dicamba would trigger widespread harm to soybean and cotton crops that weren’t resistant to dicamba. They used “protection from your neighbors” as a method to promote extra of their merchandise. In doing so, the businesses ignored years of warnings from unbiased teachers, specialty crop growers, and their very own workers.

Limited Testing

Monsanto restricted testing that would doubtlessly delay or deny regulatory approval of dicamba. For years, Monsanto struggled to preserve dicamba from drifting in its personal exams. In regulatory exams submitted to the EPA, the corporate sprayed the product in places and underneath climate circumstances that didn’t mirror how farmers would really spray it. Midway by the approval course of, with the EPA paying shut consideration, the corporate determined to cease its researchers from conducting exams.

Questionable Impact

Even after submitting knowledge that the EPA used to approve dicamba in 2016, Monsanto scientists knew that many questions remained. The firm’s personal analysis confirmed dicamba blended with different herbicides was extra doubtless to trigger harm. The firm additionally prevented unbiased scientists from conducting their very own exams and declined to pay for research that might doubtlessly give them extra details about dicamba’s real-world influence.

Avoiding Liability

Although marketed as serving to out prospects, the businesses’ investigations of drift incidents have been designed to restrict their legal responsibility, discover different causes for the harm, and by no means finish with payouts to farmers. For instance, BASF informed pesticide applicators that typically it’s not protected to spray even when following the label to the letter, inserting legal responsibility squarely on the applicators.

Working Together

The two firms have been in lockstep for years. Executives from Monsanto and BASF met not less than 19 occasions from 2010 on to focus on the dicamba-tolerant cropping system, together with working collectively on the event of the expertise, attaining regulatory approval for the crops and herbicides, and the commercialization of crops.

Illegal Applications

Monsanto launched seeds resistant to dicamba in 2015 and 2016 with out an accompanying weed killer, realizing that off-label spraying of dicamba, which is illegitimate, can be “rampant.” At the identical time, BASF ramped up manufacturing of older variations of dicamba that have been unlawful to apply to the crops and made tens of tens of millions of dollars promoting the older variations, which have been extra doubtless to trigger transfer off of the place they have been utilized.

Monsanto & BASF Company Statements

monsanto signage outside of facility
A Monsanto facility in Jerseyville, Illinois, in 2015. Monsanto, which was bought by Bayer in 2018, launched the dicamba-tolerant crops, starting in 2015. Midwest Center for Investigative Reporting.

Bayer, which purchased Monsanto in 2018, refused to grant an interview with the Midwest Center. Company officers didn’t reply to requests for remark, as a substitute issuing an announcement.

Spokesman Kyel Richard stated the corporate “has seen an outpouring of support from grower organizations and our customers.”

“We continue to stand with the thousands of farmers who rely on this technology as part of their integrated weed management program,” Richard stated.

BASF additionally didn’t reply to requests for remark, as a substitute issuing an announcement.

BASF spokeswoman Odessa Patricia Hines stated that the corporate’s model of dicamba has “different physical properties and compositions” than Monsanto’s. Hines stated the corporate is constant to enhance its dicamba expertise.

A federal courtroom banned the herbicide in spring of 2020, however the EPA reinstated dicamba for 5 extra years in October of that very same yr.

Bader Farms & Other Legal Complaints

owners of bader farms bill and denise bader
Bill and Denise Bader, house owners of Bader Farms, pose in entrance of the Rush Hudson Limbaugh Sr. United States Courthouse in Cape Girardeau, Missouri, on Jan. 27, 2020. Midwest Center for Investigative Reporting file photograph.

In 2020, a federal jury sided with a Missouri peach farmer who sued the businesses for driving his orchard out of enterprise. The jury awarded Bill Bader $15 million for his losses and $250 million in punitive damages designed to punish Bayer. Bayer and BASF are interesting the decision. The punitive damages have been later diminished to $60 million.

Hines of BASF identified that within the Missouri trial: “The jury’s verdict found that only Monsanto’s conduct warranted punitive damages.”

Following the trial, Bayer introduced a $400 million settlement with farmers harmed by dicamba, together with $300 million to soybean farmers. Bayer stated they count on BASF to pay for a part of the settlement.

An lawyer for Bader known as the businesses’ conduct “a conspiracy to create an ecological disaster in order to increase their profits” in courtroom filings. The case largely revolved round displaying the businesses knew dicamba would hurt 1000’s of farmers.

According to courtroom displays, in October 2015, Monsanto projected it might obtain practically 2,800 complaints from farmers in the course of the 2017 rising season, a determine based mostly on one-in-ten farmers having a grievance.

However, even one Monsanto government knew these projections could be low, in accordance to courtroom information. In late August 2016, Boyd Carey, a PhD crop scientist overseeing the claims course of for Monsanto, realized it could be extra like one-in-five and requested for a price range enhance from $2.four million to $6.5 million to examine claims. Carey testified that he was awarded the rise.

The projected variety of complaints rose to greater than three,200 for 2018, earlier than happening. After 2018, Monsanto figured that fewer farmers can be harmed as a result of extra farmers would swap to Monsanto’s crops to keep away from being broken, Carey testified within the Bader trial.

Delaying the Inevitable

Dicamba impacts all elements of Glazik’s operation. He grows natural soybeans to keep away from publicity to poisonous pesticides. He additionally likes the upper premiums and the improved soil high quality. But with dicamba within the air, he’s much less doubtless to achieve success.

He now has to plant his soybeans later annually. Soybeans are much less doubtless to be severely broken once they’re small, and planting them later than common means they’ll be smaller when the inevitable cloud of weed killer envelops his crops. Later planting sometimes means a little bit of yield loss. It additionally means a later harvest, which limits planting of canopy crops Glazik makes use of to enhance his soil.

“All crop damage aside,” he stated, the weed killer is in every single place. Oaks, hickories, and different bushes are broken close to his farm, each within the nation and on the town, he stated. “The fact is that the chemical can volatilize and move with the wind and in the air. We’re breathing it.”

A ‘Potential Disaster’

soybeans with suspected dicamba damage
Soybeans with suspected dicamba harm north of Flatville, Illinois, on August 21, 2019. Millions of acres of non-dicamba tolerant soybeans have been broken by dicamba. Midwest Center for Investigative Reporting file photograph.

For 20 years, Monsanto made billions of dollars with Roundup Ready crops, which had been genetically engineered to face up to being sprayed by the weed killer and adopted by practically each American soybean farmer. But by the mid-to-late 2000s, Roundup was beginning to fail. Farmers’ fields have been overwhelmed with “superweeds” that had developed resistance to Roundup’s lively ingredient, glyphosate.

In response, Monsanto developed new soybean and cotton seeds that have been genetically engineered to face up to being sprayed by each glyphosate and dicamba, a really efficient weed killer used for the reason that 1960s. It was additionally touted as the corporate’s largest biotechnology rollout in firm historical past. In simply three years, Monsanto’s dicamba-tolerant system was ready to seize up to three-fourths of complete soybean acreage, an space the scale of Michigan.

Dicamba was not extensively used in the course of the rising season due to its propensity to transfer off-target and hurt different crops. Because of its restricted use, fewer weeds have been resistant to it, making it an efficient substitute for Roundup. Monsanto even dubbed the crops as its money-maker’s next-generation, calling them Roundup Ready 2 Xtend.

But the corporate confronted an issue with dicamba: The weed killer drifted onto non-resistant crops, some so far as miles away. In its personal testing over time, Monsanto had by accident harmed its personal crops dozens of occasions.

As far again as 2009, Monsanto and BASF obtained warnings about dicamba from a number of sources — one firm known as it a “potential disaster,” in accordance to courtroom information — however they determined to plow forward anyway.

“DON’T DO IT; expect lawsuits,” wrote one Monsanto worker, summarizing tutorial surveys the corporate commissioned about dicamba’s use.

Dicamba Drift and Volatilization

In order to commercialize dicamba, each Monsanto and BASF labored to develop new formulations with low volatility.

Off-target motion from dicamba can occur in two essential methods: drift and volatilization. Drift is when the chemical’s particles transfer off the sphere when they’re sprayed, usually by wind within the seconds or minutes after it’s utilized. Volatilization is when dicamba particles flip from a liquid to a gasoline within the hours or days after the herbicide is utilized.

Damage from volatilization steadily happens by a course of known as “atmospheric loading,” which is when a lot dicamba is sprayed on the similar time that it’s unable to dissipate and persists within the air for hours or days, poisoning no matter it comes into contact with.

Volatilization is especially regarding as a result of dicamba can transfer for miles and hurt non-target crops, particularly soybeans, and even lawns and gardens. Tomatoes, grapes, and different specialty crops are additionally at-risk of being broken.

Despite being touted as much less risky, the brand new variations — Monsanto’s XtendiMax with VaporGrip Technology and BASF’s Engenia — have been unable to cease the motion completely.

Off-Target Incidents

During its 2012-2014 testing of an older model of XtendiMax, Monsanto had not less than 73 off-target incidents, in accordance to courtroom paperwork.

In 2014, Monsanto had vital dicamba harm at a coaching facility in Portageville, Missouri. Even in its personal promotional movies, Monsanto couldn’t stop non-dicamba tolerant soybeans from displaying signs of injury.

The EPA took observe of an incident the place, by volatilization, dicamba changed into a gasoline and apparently floated greater than 2 miles away, a lot farther than it was supposed to. During that incident, nobody had measured how badly the crops had been broken, and the EPA was unable to definitively decide the signs have been brought on by dicamba. The EPA determined that was an “uncertainty” and accredited the usage of the weed killer with a 110-foot buffer zone.

In 2015, realizing the EPA was preserving a watch on off-target motion, Monsanto determined to halt all testing of XtendiMax with VaporGrip Technology. According to courtroom information, it stored its personal workers who have been interested by creating suggestions for farmers from testing. And it restricted trials by unbiased teachers so as to preserve a “clean slate.” It requested BASF to halt its dicamba testing as properly.

When a weed science professor on the University of Arkansas requested Monsanto for a bit of little bit of Xtendimax to check its volatility, the corporate informed him it might have problem producing sufficient dicamba for each him and its unbiased exams.

A Monsanto worker, who labored on the firm for 35 years, didn’t assume a lot of that rationalization when he forwarded the e-mail to a colleague.

“Hahaha difficulty in producing enough product for field testing,” he wrote. “Hahaha bullshit.”

Illegal Spraying a ‘Ticking Time Bomb’

roundup ready soybeans and signage
Dicamba-resistant soybeans in rural McLean County on August 7. 2017. The Roundup Ready 2 Xtend soybeans have been touted as the following technology of glyphosate-resistant soybeans. Midwest Center for Investigative Reporting file photograph.

Weeds lower into farmers’ income. With low revenue margins, farmers will use any device they will to management weeds.

Monsanto acknowledged this in 2015 and 2016 once they launched dicamba-tolerant crops with out their new variations of dicamba. An inner Monsanto slide reveals the corporate knew that many farmers would doubtless illegally spray older, extra risky variations and hurt different farmers’ crops.

But the corporate determined the advantages of creating a market share outweighed the dangers and launched the cotton crops in 2015. The EPA allowed farmers to spray different weed killers on the crops, and Monsanto determined to launch the seeds with “a robust communication plan that dicamba cannot be used.”

When the seeds have been offered, Monsanto put a pink sticker on every bag to point out it was unlawful to spray dicamba on the crops in 2015. The firm additionally despatched letters to all growers and retailers, amongst different techniques, to restrict unlawful functions of dicamba.

However, in inner communications in April 2015, members of Monsanto’s cotton staff joked about this dangerous technique.

“One sticker is going to keep us out of jail,” one wrote.

In Oct. 2015, a BASF worker reported listening to that growers sprayed older variations of dicamba on the cotton that yr.

Monsanto doubled down on this dangerous technique in 2016, releasing dicamba-tolerant soybean crops and not using a weed killer, too. Meanwhile, Monsanto additionally declined to examine drift incidents in 2015 and 2016.

At a February 2016 assembly in Puerto Rico, a BASF government expressed considerations to Monsanto that the “widespread” unlawful spraying would doubtless grow to be “rampant” due to the choice.

BASF additionally benefited from Monsanto’s resolution. The firm’s gross sales of older variations of dicamba spiked in 2016. Retailers offered $100 million price of its older variations of the weed killer, in contrast to about $60 million yearly in 2014 and 2015, in accordance to inner paperwork. BASF paperwork indicated the gross sales elevated due to dicamba-tolerant seeds.

In the summer season of 2016, BASF gross sales representatives within the area have been reporting older variations of dicamba inflicting harm, hinting the issue was predictable.

“The one thing most acres of beans have in common is dicamba damage. There must be a huge cloud of dicamba blanketing the Missouri Bootheel,” a BASF worker wrote in a July four, 2016, report. “That ticking time bomb finally exploded.”

Drift Expected to Drive Sales

tractor harvesting soybean field

Dicamba drift led to widespread information protection. Monsanto and BASF anticipated to flip all of it into extra money.

In an inner doc, Monsanto informed its gross sales groups to goal growers that weren’t interested by dicamba and dicamba-resistant crops. The gross sales pitch? Purchasing Monsanto’s merchandise would shield them from their neighbors.

In April 2017, a market analysis doc ready by Bank of America discovered many farmers have been doing simply that.

“Interesting assessment that much of the Xtend acreage was planted to protect themselves from neighbors who might be using dicamba? Gotta admit I would not have expected this in a market research document,” a Monsanto government wrote.

In inner slides from a September 2016 assembly, BASF recognized “defensive planting” as a possible market alternative. BASF additionally had a market analysis doc that discovered defensive planting was driving gross sales.

However, a “tough questions” memo distributed to BASF workers in November 2017 informed workers the alternative: “We have not considered ‘defensive planting’ in our sales projections.”

Even as 1000’s of farms throughout tens of millions of acres of cropland have been being broken, Monsanto officers have been touting the harm as a gross sales alternative.

“I think we can significantly grow business and have a positive effect on the outcome of 2017 if we reach out to all the driftee people,” one other Monsanto gross sales worker wrote in an e-mail that yr.

“This is the first product in American history that literally destroys the competition. “You buy it or else.” – Billy Randles, lawyer for Bill Bader

One of these prospects was Bill Bader, the peach farmer who sued Monsanto for destroying his orchard. Bader testified that whereas he couldn’t shield his peach bushes, in 2019, he planted dicamba-tolerant soybeans to assist shield his soybean crops from getting broken.

“This is the first product in American history that literally destroys the competition,” Bader’s lawyer, Billy Randles, stated. “You buy it or else.”

Research Designed to Downplay Harm

For years, the EPA informed Monsanto it wanted to deal with volatility in its dicamba research when making use of for regulatory approval. But the exams Monsanto performed didn’t mirror real-world circumstances.

Dicamba would primarily be sprayed on soybeans. But 2015 research submitted to the EPA have been performed at a cotton area in Texas and a dust area in Georgia. Neither state has a considerable amount of soybeans. This steerage adopted directives from Monsanto lobbyists that integrated earlier Monsanto analysis displaying that increased volatility was detected on fields with soybeans.

In addition, Monsanto didn’t comply with the foundations that might finally be codified on the label.

During the testing in Texas, wind speeds have been 1.9 to four.9 miles per hour. In Georgia, wind speeds have been 1.5 to three miles per hour. According to the label, the EPA-approved dicamba can solely be sprayed with wind speeds between three and 10 miles per hour. Spraying at low wind speeds is extra doubtless to lead to volatilization as a result of there may be elevated threat of a temperature inversion, which is when cooler air is caught beneath a layer of hotter air, making gases extra doubtless to persist close to the bottom.

After Monsanto submitted the exams to the EPA, the corporate nonetheless had a number of unknowns about its product’s volatility, in accordance to inner emails.

A Monsanto researcher wrote an e-mail in February 2016 to his coworkers that underscored how little the corporate knew concerning the propensity of dicamba to harm crops.

“We don’t know how long a sensitive plant needs in a natural setting to show volatility damage. We don’t know what concentration in the air causes a response, either,” he wrote. “There is a big difference for plants exposed to dicamba vapor for 24 vs 48 hours. Be careful using this externally.”

Despite the design of the research, and the EPA’s personal research that confirmed dicamba posed a threat to 322 protected species of animals and crops, the company conditionally accredited the herbicide in 2016. The company decided that mitigation measures — corresponding to not spraying close to specialty crops and endangered species habitats, wind velocity restrictions, and a ban on aerial functions — would preserve spray droplets on goal.

It was solely accredited for 2 years, when the company would evaluate its approval once more.

BASF Knew the New Dicamba Was Risky

basf research facility signage outside building
A BASF analysis farm close to Seymour, Illinois, on Dec. three, 2020. BASF launched Engenia, a low volatility formulation of dicamba, starting in 2017. Midwest Center for Investigative Reporting.

After the conditional approval, BASF knew dicamba nonetheless posed dangers. While BASF informed farmers dicamba drift wouldn’t damage their backside traces, the corporate privately informed pesticide applicators that any drift they brought about might lower farmers’ harvests, in accordance to inner BASF paperwork. A BASF government stated, “from a practical standpoint,” Engenia was not totally different from older dicamba variations.

Even Monsanto’s gross sales groups have been having issues with dicamba’s status after the EPA accredited the weed killer.

In an inner e-mail, a Monsanto salesman took concern with BASF altering the way it publicly mentioned its dicamba product: It used to say volatility was not an issue, however now it stated it was. Another chemical firm saying volatility was dangerous might damage Monsanto’s gross sales.

“We need to get on this right now!” the salesperson emailed his colleagues. “deny! Deny! DENY!”

‘Never Admit Guilt’

In 2017, the primary season that the brand new variations of dicamba have been accredited, harm reached unprecedented ranges. Around three.6 million acres of soybeans have been broken, in accordance to an estimate from the University of Missouri.

In July of that yr, Monsanto executives scheduled a gathering to talk about how to fight protection of complaints.

“We need REAL scientific support for our product to counteract the supposition happening in the market today,” a Monsanto government wrote in an e-mail. “To be frank, dealers and growers are losing confidence in Xtendimax.”

map of damaged soybean acreage from dicamba
Estimates of dicamba-injured soybean acreage as reported by state extension weed scientists as of October 15, 2017. This map was created by Prof. Kevin Bradley on the University of Missouri. Midwest Center for Investigative Reporting.

“I was always told to never admit guilt.” – BASF government

In late summer season 2017, Monsanto had began to blame harm on a BASF weed killer, which is used on the principle competitor to Monsanto’s personal soybeans. In December 2017, Monsanto agreed to drop that argument as a part of a protection technique with BASF in opposition to farmers.

Both Monsanto and BASF took steps to defend themselves from lawsuits.

The type Monsanto informed its investigators to use when analyzing farmer complaints was “developed to gather data that could defend Monsanto,” in accordance to an inner firm presentation. Later, Monsanto stated that 91% of applicators utilizing the shape self-reported errors in spraying dicamba.

A BASF government additionally edited his firm’s drift investigation Q&A.

“I was always told to never admit guilt,” he stated.

On high of the investigations, the label left pesticide applicators chargeable for harm as a result of it was practically inconceivable to comply with. A 2017 survey of applicators discovered that the majority skilled sprayers had points with dicamba even when spraying in good circumstances and whereas following the label.

With harm being reported in 2017, Monsanto additionally declined to pursue a examine that might have given the corporate extra details about how dicamba brought about harm on actual farms. A Monsanto off-target motion researcher despatched a request for a challenge proposal to Exponent, which helped analyze the info Monsanto submitted to the EPA. The examine might be performed in lower than two weeks and price $6,000.

The researcher forwarded the proposal to two Monsanto executives.

The firm by no means acted on it, one testified within the trial.

‘The Problems Have Not Gone Away’

In order to fight the harm, the EPA developed new restrictions on dicamba. In doing so, the EPA dropped an concept that Monsanto opposed, and Monsanto dictated the brand new restrictions that have been adopted.

State officers warned the EPA the adjustments wouldn’t work. They have been proper. In 2018, not less than four.1 million acres have been broken, in accordance to EPA paperwork.

Still, the EPA reapproved dicamba for the 2019 and 2020 rising seasons with new restrictions, a few of which ignored company scientists’ suggestions.

States additionally more and more took measures into their very own arms, implementing spraying closing dates and temperature restrictions.

The harm continued. Illinois, the nation’s largest soybean producing state, had extra complaints than ever in 2019. Iowa had “landscape level” harm in 2020.

Aaron Hager, an affiliate professor of weed science on the University of Illinois, stated it’s clear the adjustments haven’t labored.

“We have revised the label and revised it again,” Hager stated. “The problems have not gone away.”

The EPA’s resolution was finally voided by the Ninth Circuit Court of Appeals for failing to correctly take into account the impacts on farmers and the surroundings. The courtroom dominated the company gave an excessive amount of deference to Bayer and in addition was missing vital knowledge to present an excessive amount of hurt wouldn’t be performed.

Dicamba was just lately reapproved, and Bayer continues to spend money on it. The firm will launch new soybean seeds designed to be resistant to dicamba and glufosinate, one other BASF herbicide, to fill 20 million acres in 2021. The firm additionally continues to work towards approval of different seeds which are resistant to dicamba and different herbicides.

Glazik, the natural Illinois soybean farmer, works as a crops marketing consultant advising different farmers on what to plant. As the harm has continued, he stated, an increasing number of of his shoppers are “feeling bullied into” shopping for the dicamba-tolerant crops. Others inform him they’ve to spray dicamba, or else they will’t management the weeds.

But as an natural farmer, Glazik stated, no single herbicide is critical. Instead, farmers have a alternative. Well-managed fields could be weed-free with out utilizing poisonous chemical compounds, he stated.

“You don’t have to have the dicamba spray to control weeds in a field,” he stated.


The Midwest Center for Investigative Reporting is a nonprofit, on-line newsroom providing investigative and enterprise protection of agribusiness, Big Ag and associated points by knowledge evaluation, visualizations, in-depth experiences, and interactive net instruments. Visit us on-line at

Tell us within the feedback:

  • Were you conscious of the widespread utilization and issues with dicamba?
  • What do you consider Monsanto and BASF’s responses to the harm they’ve brought about?
  • How do you management weeds when rising meals — with out the usage of dangerous chemical compounds?

Featured picture: Midwest Center for Investigative Reporting

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