With the proliferation of watches, pendants, straps, and different wearable well being trackers that monitor features of our biology, advocates for these units say that atypical individuals can now get the good thing about instantaneous suggestions to not solely monitor their well being and health, however take steps to enhance them as properly.

But this idea of instantaneous suggestions impacting actions and habits isn’t new. Consider the story of a 1970s Amsterdam housing growth.

Like many subdivisions in these days, all the homes there have been just about an identical. But for some unknown motive, a few of the items had their electrical meters within the basement, whereas others had theirs within the entrance corridor.

Then the vitality disaster struck. OPEC (Organization of the Petroleum Exporting Countries) embargoed oil, costs skyrocketed, and people and governments began listening to their vitality consumption. That’s when somebody from the Dutch authorities seen that the homes with their vitality meters within the entrance corridor, in full view, had 30% decrease vitality utilization than the homes with the meters tucked away within the basement.

This was an enormous deal. Simply putting a suggestions mechanism the place the residents might see it each day did extra to cut back vitality consumption than all the general public service bulletins, incentives, and social strain the federal government or the free market might muster.

Business theorist Peter Drucker is usually quoted as saying, “What gets measured, gets managed.” And a few of the world’s most profitable organizations deploy this type of well-timed suggestions relentlessly, as evidenced by the emphasis on KROs (key outcomes and targets) that has swept prime Silicon Valley corporations like Google, Intel, Facebook, and Dropbox.

Health trackers make the most of this type of seen, measured suggestions, allegedly making it loads simpler to measure outcomes and create motivation and accountability.

Health and Fitness Trackers Are Here to Stay

patient checking heart rate with health tracker

Even a decade in the past, such monitoring would have been doable solely with costly, cumbersome tools offered to you by a medical skilled. Now, you should buy and use a small machine and monitor well being data on an app.

As the prices of medical care threaten to sink our whole financial system, some insurance coverage corporations even present them or give reductions to encourage wholesome dwelling. Healthcare professionals may help their sufferers and shoppers extra successfully once they have a clearer image of how they’re doing past notoriously inaccurate self-reports and intermittent assessments. And having numbers at their fingertips empowers atypical individuals to take management of their very own well being.

One factor’s for certain: because of their ease of use, accessibility, and affordability, the well being and health tracker trade is booming. The use of wearable know-how has greater than tripled within the final 4 years.

But what are the precise advantages of well being monitoring? Are well being trackers value it? Does the info help their use? And what are a few of the prime choices on the market if you wish to get began with a well being tracker?

What Is a Health Tracker?

adult woman checking fitness tracker while running

Health trackers, also referred to as health trackers, exercise trackers, or wearable know-how, are digital units designed to trace and accumulate private well being and train knowledge. Health trackers generally take the type of a watch. But different varieties can be found within the type of a hoop, a band, a chest strap, or perhaps a patch. They monitor organic phenomena like coronary heart price and respiration, in addition to exercise like steps, oxygen saturation, distance traveled, steps climbed, and so forth.

Not solely do these units present ongoing suggestions, however they keep logs and may measure and report in your progress over time.

But retaining monitor of well being parameters isn’t sufficient by itself to alter habits. The true energy of those trackers is their potential to offer real-time suggestions, so you can also make higher decisions.

You can arrange alerts and reminders to train, drink water, go to mattress, meditate, or just about some other exercise. These might be time-based reminders (take a deep breath each afternoon at three pm) or conditional (“Hey, you’ve been sitting on your butt for an hour; get up and go for a walk”).

Many of the well being and health trackers accessible additionally work with smartphone apps, so you may combination knowledge from many sources right into a single “personal trainer in your pocket” that tells you what to do to maximise your well being.

Benefits & Downsides of Health Tracking

Remember that Peter Drucker perception about the advantages of measurement, that’s quoted on a regular basis within the enterprise press, the one I shared at the start of this text? Two issues about that: First, he by no means stated it. The line first appeared in a 1956 paper by V. F. Ridgway that argued in opposition to obsessive and senseless monitoring. Secondly, that is what the total quote truly says: “What gets measured gets managed — even when it’s pointless to measure and manage it, and even if it harms the purpose of the organization to do so.”

Just as a result of you may measure one thing doesn’t imply it’s the precise factor to measure, or that you simply’re measuring it precisely. While some types of monitoring are useful, others can truly distract you from what’s necessary. Like that outdated joke in regards to the individual searching for their keys below the lamppost as a result of the sunshine is best there, you may concentrate on what the trackers inform you on the expense of what actually issues. So let’s take a considerate take a look at the advantages and drawbacks of well being monitoring.

Benefits of Health Tracking

closeup of man monitoring watch health tracker
iStock.com/Chainarong Prasertthai

Pay Attention to Different Areas of Health

On the upside, well being monitoring can supply insights into totally different features of your well being. Just as the toilet scale can tip you off that it’s time to ease off the desserts, a wearable can let that you simply’ve been going to mattress too late, or that your coronary heart price accelerates everytime you go to your cranky Aunt Minerva.

Wearables may also clue you in to new areas of your well being to think about.  For instance, recognizing the affiliation of sedentarism (the apply of sitting for lengthy intervals of time every day) with poor well being and early demise. Many trackers robotically warn you while you’ve been sitting for greater than 45 minutes and urge you to face or do a number of stretches to get up your physique.

Easier to Achieve Goals

Health trackers may also amp up your motivation and make it simpler to attain your objectives. As the businesses that manufacture and market these units deploy behavioral scientists to extend compliance and effectiveness, many alter their interface to make the info extra helpful. Apple Watch, for instance, provides a gamified expertise during which wearers can construct “streaks” and earn badges.

And while you get correct suggestions in your progress, you may take smarter steps to get the outcomes you need. For instance, with some trackers, you may get an instantaneous alert that your coronary heart price variability (HRV: a measure of the resilience of your nervous system and a proxy for total well being) has dropped, which might inspire you to take proactive steps to help your total well being.

Accountability & Social Sharing

Since we all know that social strain is a strong motivator, some trackers enable for exercise sharing with family and friends to extend accountability — and even to create some pleasant competitors.

Monitor a Health Condition

Trackers additionally allow you to watch a well being situation, or to doubtlessly warn you of 1. If you may have an issue with a sluggish coronary heart price, for instance, the machine can inform you in case your coronary heart price falls beneath a sure quantity. Or, you probably have bother sleeping, the tracker can analyze your sleep cycles, coronary heart price, oxygen saturation, and assist you optimize them. You could discover that you simply sleep higher while you go to mattress at a sure time, train a certain quantity, or partake in or keep away from particular habits or actions near bedtime.

Some individuals have stated their well being tracker made the last word distinction of their lives. In 2018, a Tampa Bay teenager was rushed to the hospital after her Apple Watch instructed her to hunt medical consideration instantly, after her pulse shot as much as 190 beats per minute. The care she was capable of obtain for what turned out to be kidney failure saved her life.

Improve Your Habits

The advantages aren’t all the time that dramatic, in fact. A tracker could merely encourage you to enhance your way of life habits over time. In normal, individuals who use well being and health trackers transfer extra and are much less sedentary than others. One examine discovered that individuals sporting a tracker walked practically a mile extra per day than those that didn’t. And the outcomes endured over 13 weeks.

And individuals who train usually tend to interact in different health-promoting behaviors, like consuming properly.


As the market has grown, the costs for well being and health trackers have dropped. Depending on included options, yow will discover a well being tracker anyplace from $25 to $400. But you probably have a smartphone, you may have already got a well being tracker and never understand it. For instance, Apple Health, an app that’s on each iPhone, will depend your steps, measure your common step size, and even report on any asymmetries between your proper and left leg strides.

Downsides of Health Trackers

woman sleeping with health tracker on wrist and phone next to pillow

Even with all these potential advantages, there are some disadvantages to well being trackers as properly.

Privacy Threats

The greatest publicized of those downsides to well being monitoring is the menace to your privateness. If you don’t learn the handfuls of scrolling pages of superb print, you may not understand that the app you’re utilizing could share your knowledge, or promote it to advertisers and social media corporations.

If you don’t need Facebook to find out about your coronary heart price at any given second, or the place you’re in your menstrual cycle, you may need to learn the superb print or rethink that tracker.

Fortunately, there’s a bipartisan invoice, launched to the US Congress in February, 2021, referred to as the Smartwatch Data Act, that may prohibit the sharing of information from wearables with advertisers and social media corporations. (As of this writing, the invoice is being reviewed by the Committee on Health, Education, Labor, and Pensions).


Trackers are typically higher at measuring some issues than others. A 2017 examine out of Stanford University Medical School discovered that wristband health trackers can measure coronary heart price precisely (inside 5%), however fail to precisely account for energy burned (with a mean error of 27%, and the worst one off by 93%). Even coronary heart price isn’t a certain factor, as the info might be skewed primarily based on the wearer’s pores and skin shade and physique mass index.

A 2018 examine out of British Columbia assessed the assorted monitoring features of Fitbit units. Researchers discovered that the pedometer operate was fairly good at counting steps, however the sleep monitoring was approach off. Also, the Fitbits underestimated distance for faster-paced strolling, and did a poor job of accounting for higher physique exercises.


Just as individuals can turn into hooked on video video games and smartphones, we will get obsessive about monitoring the outcomes of our wearables. A 2020 examine reported within the Journal of Medical Internet Research discovered that coronary heart sufferers ages 55-74 have been as prone to really feel anxious, uncertain, and confused by the info they obtained from wearables as they have been reassured and empowered. Some felt nudged into good habits, whereas others felt pressured or skilled the interface as nagging.


Like plenty of know-how, trackers are designed for a “default” human being, which on this case seems to be an able-bodied Caucasian. Just as individuals of shade could discover that their wristband machine doesn’t precisely measure their coronary heart price, individuals with mobility impairments could not profit a lot from a motion tracker. The units aren’t arrange out of the field to acknowledge wheelchair exercise, for instance.

There can also be a necessity for exercise recognition that helps a wider vary of human motion, together with what’s generally known as exergaming (video video games that require numerous types of bodily motion to work together with the controller, and which might additionally monitor numerous types of well being knowledge internally).

Types of Health Trackers and What They Offer

two people sharing data between their two wrist-based health trackers

One technique to categorize well being and health trackers is by their kind issue.


The majority of well being and health trackers appear like wristwatches. The most well-known examples embody the Apple Watch, numerous fashions of Fitbit, and the Amazfit. These are among the many most complete of all such units, monitoring a wide range of well being classes: sleep, train, steps/distance traveled, coronary heart price, water consumption, blood oxygen, and many others.

Other wristwatch trackers attraction to athletes, capturing knowledge and offering prompts to assist runners, cyclists, and swimmers enhance their pace, stamina, and effectivity. Garmin, Coros, and Suunto are three common manufacturers that help in coaching and races.

Many of those trackers combine with apps on a smartphone, and can be utilized to trace knowledge like meals consumption, weight, menstrual cycle, and so forth. The extra options (together with waterproofing, scratch resistance, GPS, music storage, customizable watch faces, and precise phone capabilities a la Dick Tracey), the costlier these units are inclined to turn into.

Personal anecdote: I bought a Fitbit Sense in 2020 and have liked it. Since I bought it, I discover myself sleeping extra and exercising extra. I discover it enjoyable to trace my actions, sleep hours, and coronary heart price, and see myself checking (maybe a bit too typically!) what number of steps I’ve taken, how a lot time I’ve spent with accelerated coronary heart price, and even what my sleep rating was the earlier night time. For me, the data is enjoyable and motivating.

Clip-on Devices

The foremost characteristic of most clip-on trackers is their potential to depend steps like an analog pedometer. But some go a lot additional, monitoring sleep, exercises, and menstrual cycles. Cyclists typically use clip-ons with GPS that may show route particulars in addition to biometrics. Because they will clip onto bike handlebars in addition to clothes, wearers can regulate their maps and stats with out having to take a look at a watch.

Examples of clip-on producers embody Omron and Garmin.


Less apparent, however typically extra pricey, are monitoring rings that you simply put on in your finger like jewellery. Because they lack shows, it’s important to pair them with a smartphone to view knowledge. The chief benefit of a hoop can also be its foremost drawback: as a result of it’s so small, it’s simple to lose for those who take it off (or if it slips off throughout train).

Examples of ring trackers embody Oura, which claims to seize extremely correct sleep knowledge with its finger sensors, and SleepOn, which tracks not solely coronary heart price, however blood oxygen saturation (which drops throughout sleep apneas), and vibration (with the power to alert the wearer to their very own loud night breathing and nudge them into a unique sleep place).

I’ve examined out the Oura ring, appreciated the aesthetic (it’s a hoop, in any case!), and located it very efficient for monitoring sleep. However, I used to be annoyed that it didn’t monitor coronary heart price through the day, and located its health monitoring elements minimal at greatest. So in case your main curiosity is in monitoring your sleep, it could possibly be an ideal possibility. But for health — perhaps not a lot.

Chest Straps

These are normally not stand-alone trackers, however require an extra machine to which they will transmit the info they accumulate — like a smartphone stationary bike, treadmill, or rowing machine. Chest straps primarily concentrate on coronary heart price, assessing the pulses within the chest with better accuracy than these in a finger or wrist. Examples of chest strap manufacturers embody Polar, Coospo, and Wahoo.

Is Health Tracking for You?

male athlete checking health tracker on wrist

Biometric trackers is usually a beneficial software for gleaning actionable details about your well being and habits — and for growing accountability and constructive motivation. If you determine to get one, the only option for you’ll possible rely on what well being info you’re searching for, price, ease of use, and aesthetic concerns.

In normal, individuals who get biometric trackers are inclined to kind more healthy habits. But on the finish of the day, the worth of information is in how you employ it. If you employ a biometric tracker and turn into obsessive and anxious, or beat up on your self, it might be wiser to seek out different methods to inspire constructive actions. But for those who’re in a position to make use of well being and health wearables to have fun victories and inspire constructive motion, then it could possibly be a potent ally to your well being and life objectives.

Tell us within the feedback:

  • Do you at the moment use a well being tracker? What are the principle numbers you care about?
  • What well being habits might a wearable help you in putting in or bettering?
  • Is there a selected sort of well being or health tracker that you simply’re curious to attempt?

Feature picture: iStock.com/Rocky89

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